I. Availability Heuristic: Availability Heuristic is a logical fallacy that involves a mental lapse when someone evaluates a specific topic based off of the easiest thing to remember or most recent event in his or her mind. This fallacy argues that if something is quickly remembered then it must be more important than things that are not as quick to be remembered. For example, people tend to rely to heavily on current information when forming their argument, making them biased to the latest news. In other words, Availability Heuristic is the fallacy that ideas or concepts that are easier to understand and quicker to recall are more important or valid than things that are not so easily comprehendible.
II. Example (real world): When making a decision on whom to vote for in a presidential election, people could give their vote to the person that they just saw do something good on the news. For example, if someone turns on Fox News and see that Donald Trump has just donated his liver to a dying boy, they could then take this news to the ballot and vote for him because that is the easiest thing to recall at the moment. This would be an example of a voter using Availability Heuristic.
III. Example (Film or literature): The movie Shawshank Redemption uses Availability Heuristic when one of the supporting characters begins to think that the main character, Andy, is going to commit suicide when he had asked for a rope. This actually covers both aspects of this fallacy as the character bases his assumption of Andy committing suicide off the most recent event he could recall. Instead of thinking back for harder-to-recall information like that fact that he had been wrongly accused of murder and had been in jail for almost 20 years and that maybe he was going to use it to escape, he just remembers the one thing that happened previous and becomes convinced that he is going to commit suicide. Furthermore, the character also bases his assumption on a topic that is easier to put together in his mind and makes sense. Well, this is exactly what the fallacy is based on, that easy to understand and comprehend thoughts do not necessarily mean they are right or more important.