Ad Hominem Edit
An ad hominem is a logical fallacy that occurs when one person attacks the character of his/her/its opponent rather than the argument itself. It is often used to boost the arguing party' credibility with no effort. Its usage allows the person to completely avoid the argument. There are three types of Ad hominem attacks:
Tu Quoque Edit
'Tu quoque' attacks occur when a person making the argument has done the opposite of what they said. An example would be a person who talks against smoking and drinking, but drinks and smokes themselves.
Circumstantial Ad Hominem Edit
Circumstantial ad hominems are used when one attacks the motives of their opponent. An example of this is when a car salesman tries to sell a car by claiming it is one of the greatest, but the customer responds with criticism that he is only saying these things for the sale.
Guilt By Association Edit
Guilt by Association attacks are used to equate one thing with another and make connections where none are seen. This can be seen when a person compares their opponent to an undesirable equal. For example, Nick loves chocolate, and Terry knows this, but Terry likes taffy. Instead of Terry trying to convince Nick to like taffy, he notes that Satan enjoys chocolate, meaning that Nick is just as bad as Satan.